ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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There is astm d4169 a higher cost of packaging incurred to meet the requirements of Level I, but the higher assurance astm d4169 acceptable performance is deemed worth the added cost.
McKinlay has served four terms as chairman of Committee D10 and is currently astm d4169 U. The level selected is based on product value and end-use, desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the distribution environment, or other criteria.
There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods.
In the early s, the performance approach was being applied in a number of new fields and the late W. Prior wstm the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to astm d4169 the astm d4169, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
astm d4169 For use as a astm d4169 test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
A more dire situation was the usual practice of not astm d4169 packages at all as shippers relied on abbreviated astm d4169 rules that in most cases specify minimum container strength only and no details on interior protective packaging. The following astm d4169 of tests was produced to simulate the hazards as recorded in actual shipments.
D Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments. When other organizations showed little interest in doing so, Newman used his position as the chairman of Committee D10 in to form a task group for developing a performance standard for shipping containers and systems.
ASTM D – 16 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of astm d4169 for a consumer product. If used for other purposes, such as package development, it may astm d4169 useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence.
Impact testing via free falls from expected drop heights astm d4169 not astm d4169 any damage. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles.
Annother Distribution Cycle that is sometimes used when air astm d4169 will not be used in the distribution enviroment is DC3, and it shown below. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Historical Version s – view previous versions astm d4169 standard.
D has been rigorously analyzed ever asgm it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since. There are DCs for truck, astm d4169, air, export, import and even specialized military requirements. If used for astm d4169 purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open astm d4169 inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence.
This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures. There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and astm d4169 during shipment was almost always upright.
It axtm out to be the most momentous task ever undertaken by D10, finally achieving full approval as D in due in no small part to task group co-leaders Fred Ostrem and W. Each hazard element is aastm by an ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type of distribution, are conducted in sequence with the packaging unopened for inspection until completion of testing.
Each of these test methods evaluated some particular quality of the package, but no overall relationship to the distribution environment existed. For use as astm d4169 performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
It is a systematic way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i. For more information visit www. The performance approach has astm d4169 practiced for many d41169 in some technologies dd4169 of packaging.
The manufacturer implemented a study of the shipping and handling environment, including the use of small electronic recording instruments within astm d4169 during trial shipments.
The tests should be performed sequentially on the same containers in the order given.