The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum. Carl Schmitt. Translated and Annotated by G. L. Ulmen. As Carl Schmitt lays out in The Nomos of the Earth, the establishment of a jus publicum europaeum that created guidelines for limiting war between European . Reilly, John J. () “Carl Schmitt, The Nomos of the Earth in the International Law Carl Schmitt () was a German jurist who bears.

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As long as a people exists it can always decide to give itself a new constitution CT —1. If the sovereign’s decision on the exception is not subject to any material legal constraint, the power to decide on the state of exception is tantamount to the power to decide what should count as a state of exception PT 13; Norris Legality and Legitimacytrans.

The Hidden DialogueChicago: Schmitt’s theory of constituent power has recently received a lot of attention from authors who believe it might help to reinvigorate constituted democracy Kalyvas79—; Colon-Rios Sovereignty and Dictatorship 3. Two groups will find themselves in a situation of mutual enmity if and only if there is a possibility of war and mutual killing between them.

But a strong case has been made that Schmitt’s anti-liberal jurisprudence, as well as his fervent anti-semitism, disposed him to support the Nazi regime Dyzenhaus85—; Scheuerman The separation of economics and politics, of scjmitt and public law, still today considered by th teachers of law to be an essential guarantee of freedom. Unsurprisingly, the significance and value of Schmitt’s works is subject to heated controversy Caldwell Since the political community is the social unit that can dispose of people’s lives, it will be able, where it exists, to dchmitt its superiority over all other social groups within its confines and to rule out violent conflict among its members CP 37— The culmination of Schmitt’s work in the Weimar period, and arguably his greatest achievement, is the Constitutional Theorywhich systematically applied Schmitt’s political eartu to the interpretation of the Weimar constitution.

For Schmitt, the relationship between these two dynamics, the coalescence of nation-state relations in Europe on the basis of a limitation of war and the establishment of unlimited war in those areas outside of Europe without nation-state structures, has not been coincidental but in fact constitutive for both the rise of the West and the structure of international relations in the modern world.

Schmitt thinks that this argument will hold even where an initiative scchmitt amend the constitution requires a supermajority. To territorialize the friend-enemy distinction, hence, one must ensure that all and only the people who share the same political identity live in the same territory GO 86—8, 96— Given this assumption, a legitimate international order must be able to accommodate a plurality of political communities with different, self-determined political identities.

Carl Schmitt (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Schmitt sees the nomos of the United States as being characterized by simultaneous presence and absence- political absence officially even while its economics and unofficial opinions continue to dictate the course of the new order.

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Since the Treaty of Westphalia, sovereignty in the West has been imagined in terms tge the nation-state and its ability to nomo a universal basis for political relations both within state boundaries and in relations with other similarly organized entities. While there is a somewhat fuzzy conception of territory, with domains being based more on jurisdictional authority people, not landSchmitt argues that this still had a system of its own that qualifies it for the land-appropriation category.

Nomod world-historical narrative of the development of international law and order.

The Nomos of the Earth: In the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum

As long as the political theologian can make sure that the friend-enemy distinction survives, liberals will be forced to enter the arena of the political and to go to war against the partisans of the political. In a completely abnormal situation, the continued application of the law thhe the normal administrative and judiciary channels is going to lead to haphazard and unpredictable results, while preventing effective action to end the emergency PT 13; GU 44—; Scheuerman ; Hofmann17— Car, view that the Schmitt of the Weimar period can be read as nooms defender of liberal order has been questioned by authors who stress the continuity between Schmitt’s conceptions of law, sovereignty, and democracy and fascist ideology Wolin ; Dyzenhaus ; Scheuerman PT 33—4 But that a legal system, through its norms of competence, provides for the authoritative interpretation of its material legal sarth hardly entails that it must contain a sovereign in the traditional understanding of that term.

Sovereign dictatorship, in Schmitt’s view, is an eminently democratic institution. Sinclair von Sinclair rated it it was amazing Sep 16, On the other hand, the development and stability of the nation-state system seems to have been inextricably linked to the dynamic of colonialism.

Schmitt’s first reply is based on an interpretation of the nature of European political order in the period from the establishment of the modern sovereign state to the beginning of WWI. Duke University Press, Die Dreigliederung der politischen EinheitHamburg: Theory of the Partisan. Other Internet Resources [Please contact the author with suggestions.

To do so, his decision will need to be supported by a sufficiently large and powerful constituency.

Want to Read saving…. Schmitt argues that it would be wrong to treat such particular constitutional norms as possessing the same normative force as the people’s decision for a concrete form of political existence, which is expressed in the basic principles implicit in the constitution. In eafth vein, Schmitt interpreted the Monroe-doctrine as the first act of hegemonic appropriation of a sphere of interest that might come to form part of a new global order, farth only America were willing let Germany impose its own Monroe-doctrine on continental Europe GO 83— To avert these dangers, Schmitt suggests, it is necessary to make sure that the boundaries of the political nation and the boundaries of citizenship coincide.

The Nomos of the Earth: In the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum by Carl Schmitt

Given this description of the MachtergreifungSchmitt’s political and constitutional theory seems to imply that Hitler’s rule was perfectly legitimate.


There is considerable debate about the causes of Schmitt’s willingness to associate himself with the Nazis. Politics and TheoryWestport, CT: As Schmitt would later point out in Theory of the Partisanthe distinction between absolute and contained enmity gives rise to a distinction between absolute, real, and conventional enemies Cark 85—95; see also CP 36—7; Slomp— It would be possible, moreover, to identify the outcomes of the political process with the will of the people, and to consider them democratically legitimate, even if some citizens find themselves in a temporary minority.

Though Schmitt had not been a supporter of National Socialism before Hitler came to power, he sided with the Nazis after But the reason why it has become possible to identify the outcomes of democratic procedure with the will of the people is not to be sought in inherent virtues of democratic procedure itself.

These demands on legitimate international order seem to be a recipe for anarchy. If it were not, a sovereign could hardly possess the factual capability to suspend the law and to act successfully against the perceived emergency. In these works from the later Weimar period, Schmitt’s declared aim to defend the Weimar constitution is at times barely distinguishable from a call for constitutional revision towards a more authoritarian political framework Dyzenhaus70—85; Kennedy— While Schmitt denies the possibility of changing the fundamental nature of an established constitution from within, and decries the dangers of the tyranny of a mere numerical majority, he nevertheless affirms the possibility of fundamental constitutional change through sovereign dictatorship, and he makes it clear that the German people, in a renewed exercise of their constituent power, might legitimately choose a non-liberal and non-parliamentarian form of democracy CT It therefore seems unnecessary to postulate a radical discontinuity between Schmitt’s views before and after Dyzenhaus82—; Mauss ; Scheuerman—39; Hofmann— However, Schmitt acknowledged that the era of ius publicum Europaeum had come to an end after WWI, together with the global hegemony of the classical European concert of sovereign states GO — In The Concept of the PoliticalSchmitt claims that all true political theorists base their views on a negative anthropology which holds that man is by nature evil and licentious, and thus needs to be kept in check by a strong state capable of drawing a friend-enemy distinction if there is to be social order CP 58— Therefore, he could not continue to exist.

Polity Press,pp. A group of authors sympathetic to Schmitt argue that Schmitt’s analysis of liberal constitutionalism during the Weimar period is separable from his support for National Socialism and that it constitutes an insightful and important analysis of the political presuppositions of a well-functioning liberal constitutional system Bendersky ; Schwab ; Gottfried ; Kennedy

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